Grain legumes are a type of pulse. One of the most important Kharif pulse crops is green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek], also known as Mung bean or Golden gram. The word “pulse” is derived from the Latin word “puls,” which means “pottage,” and refers to a seed that has been heated in porridge or a thick soup.
India is the world’s top producer and consumer of pulses. Green gram is one of India’s most important pulse crops, ranking third behind chickpea and pigeon pea.
Pulses include grains and legumes. Green gramme [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek], commonly known as mung bean or golden gram, is one of the most important Kharif pulse crops. The word “pulse” comes from the Latin word “puls,” which means “pottage,” and refers to the seed cooked in porridge or a thick soup. India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world. Green gram is the third most important pulse crop in India, behind chickpea and pigeon pea.
Mung beans are often grown as a green manure crop. As a leguminous crop, it has the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. It also aids in soil erosion prevention. Because it has a short growing season, it works well in many intensive crop rotations. Moong can be used as a cow feed. Green plants are uprooted or cut from ground level after the pods are harvested, sliced into small pieces, and fed to the cattle. The seed husks can be used as cattle fodder after being soaked in water. Green gram accounts for 14% of total pulses area and 7% of total pulses production in India.
ORIGIN AND HISTORY
Green gram (moong) has grown in India since the beginning of time. Although there are numerous variants in different sections of the country, this plant is unknown in its natural state. Vigna radiata var. The sublobata, which grows wild in India and Indonesia and maybe its origin of moong, is the closest relative. Moong is a native of India and Central Asia, according to Vavilov (1926).
AREA AND DISTRIBUTION
In India, Burma, Ceylon, Pakistan, China, Fiji East, Queensland, and Africa, mung bean is grown. Moong is grown in practically every state in India. As of September 27, 2019, Indian farmers had planted 134.02 lakh hectares of kharif pulses, compared to 136.40 lakh the previous year. Green gram was planted on 31.15 lakh ha this year, compared to 34.24 lakh last year. Pulses are farmed on a 29.36 hectare farm, according to reports in India, with production and productivity of 24.51 mt and 835 kg per hectare. The important mung bean growing states are Orissa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan and Bihar.
In 1932, Bose classified mung beans in India into 40 different varieties, based on leaf size, bloom color, pod color, and seed color. 2n = 24 chromosomes are found in all types. It has the following distinguishing features. Seed color – Seeds are either green, black, brown or yellow.
Seed surface — either dull or shining.
Rower color – Either light yellowish-olive or olive yellow.
Pod color – Ripe pods are either iron gray, olive gray or snuff brown.
Green gram (moong) is a member of the Leguminosae family and subfamily Papilionaceae. It is a small herbaceous annual plant that grows 30 to 100 centimetres tall, with a minor inclination to twine in the top branches. The primary stems are mostly upright, with semierect side branches. The leaves are trifoliate with long petioles, with large, oval, and entire leaflets. Short hairs cover the stems and leaves, which are often shorter than those on urd. The blooms come in a cluster of 10 to 20 in long pedicels of axillary racemes and varying hues of yellow. The pods are spherical, thin, and have a short pubescene and are 6 to 10 centimetres long. The seeds are tiny and globular in shape. The hilum is white and more or less flat, and the seed is usually green, although yellow-brown or purple-brown seeds can also be found. Cotyledons are yellow in color. Seed germination is epigeal in nature. The crop is fully self-fertile and self-pollinated.
Green gramme (Moong) thrives in climates with annual rainfall of 60 to 76 centimetres. Moong is regarded as the most hardy of all pulse crops. It prefers a warm climate and can withstand a degree to the dry. It may be grown everywhere from sea level to 2000 meters above sea level. In northern India, it is grown throughout the Kharif and summer seasons, though it is also grown during the Rabi season in the south and south west.
Moong is a crop that can be produced on a range of soils, including red-laterite soils in south India, black cotton soils in Madhya Pradesh, and sandy soils in Rajasthan. Moong cultivation requires a well-drained loamy to sandy loam soil. Moong cultivation is not possible in saline or alkaline soils.
VARIETIES: Several enhanced mung bean varieties have been developed for cultivation in various states. Recommended varieties of mung bean. Pusa-9072, Pant M-1, Narendra M-1, Varsha, MUM-2, RMG-62, Asha, Pusa Vishal, SML-32 etc.
During the Kharif season, moong is planted alongside pigeon pea, sorgham, pearl millet, maize, and cotton. Sugarcane sown in the spring can be intercropped with moong. Without affecting the main crop of sugarcane, an additional grain yield of 5-6 quintals per hectare can be achieved. Sugarcane is planted at 90-centimetre intervals between rows. With a seed rate of 7-8 kg per hectare, two rows of moong (pant moong-1) are sown 30 centimetres apart in the center of sugarcane rows, leaving 30 centimetres between cane and moong rows. The primary mung bean planting systems in northern given. Maize — wheat — green gram. Potato — wheat — green gram, green gram — wheat, green gram — potato
Two or three cross harrowings and planking are used to prepare the field. The field should be level and devoid of weeds. Give a pre-irrigation to the summer crop right after the Raby crop is harvested. When the field is ready, prepare it by ploughing it twice or three times with a local plough or harrowing. Planking should be done after each ploughing / harrowing to level the field and reduce moisture loss through evaporation from the soil surface.
SEED AND SOWING
Time of Sowing
(a) Kharif: Sowing begins in the second fortnight of June and continues through the first fortnight of July during the Kharif season.
(b) Rabi: Moong is sown in Rabi season in Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Orissa in central and southern India. Should be planted between October and November.
(c) Summer: Moong is grown in irrigated conditions in the summer in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Bihar, and West Bengal. After the harvest of sugarcane, wheat, potato, and other crops, it is seeded. Sowing takes place between mid-March and mid-April.
Seed Rate and Spacing
During the Kharif season, 12-15 kg seeds per hectare should be put in 45 cm rows, whereas during the Rabi and summer seasons, 20 kg seeds per hectare should be sown in 30 cm rows. Sowing can be done using a seed drill or behind the local plough. Thiram or carbendazim (Bavistin) at 2.5 g per kilogram of seed should be applied before sowing. If the crop is being planted for the first time or after a prolonged period of time, it is also recommended to treat the seed with an appropriate Rhizobium culture.
MANURES AND FERTILISERS:
Mung beans are commonly produced in soil with low fertility. 8-10 tonnes of compost or farm yard manure should be applied for 15 days before sowing if available. Apply 15-20 kilograms of organic manure and 40 to 50 kg of PO per hectare if organic manure is not available at the time of sowing. Drill 100 kg of diammonium phosphate if available to meet the nitrogen and phosphorus requirements. The fertilizer should be drilled into the seed either at the time of sowing or just before sowing, so that it is 5-7 centimetres below the seed.
Irrigation is not required for rainy-season crops, although drainage is essential. Because this crop is vulnerable to water logging, there should be appropriate drainage in the field. Five to six irrigations may be given to rabi and summer crops. When the soil appears to be dry, the area should be irrigated. In comparison to the Kharif crop, more irrigation is required during the summer because of the higher temperature and lower relative humidity. Around 20-25 days following seeding, the initial irrigation should be administered. The future irrigations should be spaced out 12-15 days apart. When the crop is in full flower, there should be no irrigation.
HARVESTING AND THRESHING:
Pod shattering is a major issue with pulse. As a result, picking should begin as soon as the pods reach maturity. Harvesting should take two to three pickings to finish. Only two pickings are required for synchronous kinds, and the entire crop can be harvested occasionally with a sickle. After thorough drying, the pods or the entire crop should be manually threshed.
YIELD: A properly managed crop can yield 12 to 15 quintals per hectare.
Udiyata Kumari1, Uttam Kumar2, Amreen Hasan3, Tarence Thomas4)
* Department of Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj-211008 (UP), India.