The Great Indian Desert or Thar Desert is the easternmost boundary of the Persian-Arabian Desert reaching 1.3 million square miles. [1.3 million sq km] in India and Pakistan. It is one of the most beautiful places in our vast and diverse world and at odds with the popular notion that deserts are barren deserts; This unique place hosts a rich variety of lives.
The purpose of the Desert National Park Wildlife Sanctuary is to preserve a sample representing the desert ecosystem for future generations. The National Commission on Agriculture 1976 laid emphasis on the creation of a biosphere reserve in the desert region. The vision was also to protect the desert eco-system in its natural way in the future. This Management Plan has been prepared to achieve the objectives considered during the construction of the park. Every step is taken to keep the unique features of the desert as it is.
The Thar Desert is spread over 2.3 million km2, with 85% in India and half remaining in Pakistan. It covers more than 2 million km2 in Rajasthan and extends to Gujarat, Punjab, and Haryana. Indigenous plants and animals have adapted to life under difficult conditions. The man, through his long association with the desert, has changed a number of cultural practices, which are not evident in other parts of India. Many species of domestic animals and plants have become accustomed to living in the desert. Thar is the most populous desert in the world and over the last 4-5 decades, it has seen a tremendous growth in human and animal populations as well as deeply unpopular development activities. Both gas and oil are found in large quantities in many desert areas. The desert has rapid changes, which will have a long-lasting and sometimes irreversible effect on the fragile ecosystem of this unique ecosystem.
Livestock is an important asset to poor rural people in developing countries but they face a major challenge in accessing seasonal food. A study was conducted to evaluate the available and potential feeds of feeds and livestock production in the southern hemisphere. A feed check tool was used to collect required data. The assessment includes group discussions and individual interviews. The results showed that seasonal shortages, lack of livestock supply and lack of watering facilities are the main challenges facing livestock production in the study area. Pastures and green cabbage were the main source of food for the animals during the wet season and crop residues, fodder trees and shrubs were the main sources of food during the dry season.
The Thar Desert is a temporary shelter between large wind belts. The entire desert consisted of low slopes drenched with sand dunes and bare hills. Throughout the Thar Desert as a whole, mixed, medium-sized, and fine-grained sediments abound. Desert soil is restricted to the “magra” of the world. Wind-blown sand, due to aerodynamic processes and biotic disturbances, forms moving sand dunes that change over time or move from one place to another. Moving sand dunes are very common near Sam, Khuri, Dav and Miajlar. Most of the dunes are occupied by pioneering plants such as Aerva javanica, Aristida sp. Calligonum polygonoides, Cenchrus sp. Cyperus atkinsonii etc. Which leads to stabilization of dunes. Inter-dunal depressions are composed of erosion and dry beds of desert streams. The salt flats are very limited and there is no permanent water source. However the seasonal streams, in an area called ‘Nalas’ flow a few days immediately after the rains. Rainwater is collected and raised in ‘Khadeens’ and ‘nadis’ for drinking and planting in wetlands.
Forest Types, cover and wildlife:
The great Indian bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps) or the Indian bustard found on the Indian subcontinent. A large bird with a horizontal body and long bare legs, giving it the appearance of an ostrich, this bird is one of the most difficult-flying birds.
A major problem in animal production
Food shortages, poor farmers’ knowledge in livestock production, genetic deficiency of traditional cattle breeds, diseases and land scarcity were major issues affecting livestock production with all agro-ecologies in a decreasing value.
Some of the most important environmental issues affecting livestock production include global warming, tropical deforestation, water use problems, ethnic and desert areas, and livestock and wildlife interactions.
Many physical, biological and socio-economic factors work together to influence the environment and the level of animal husbandry practiced in any region. Climate, which includes both temperature and rainfall, can affect any animal’s ability to survive and reproduce in many ways.
Limited availability of quality breeding bulls. Lack of vaccines and vaccination planning. Due to industrial growth and urbanization many pastures are being degraded or occupied. Diversion of food ingredients and fodder for industrial use.
These three challenges – feeding the growing population, providing farmers with a livelihood, and protecting the environment – must be addressed if we are to make sustainable progress in any of them.
Healthy cows are essential for proper production of beef and milk.
Provision of shelter. The provision of appropriate shelter is another human factor that contributes to livestock production.
Availability of water.
Diseases and epidemics.
Current challenges facing the global food system
Let’s start with the most obvious one. The global food system is expected to provide safe and nutritious food to people who are expected to grow from 7.5 billion people today, to about 10 billion by 2050. Not only will there be more nutritious mouth speakers, but as income grows for emerging and developing people. Economically, there will be a demand for meat, fish, and milk.
However, food production is only one part of the food system. The agricultural food sector also provides millions of people with a livelihood. Globally, the poorest people live in rural areas where food production is often the most important economic activity. There are an estimated 570 million farms worldwide today, and millions of other people are employed in food-related activities.
The global food system has a great natural history. In fact, agriculture occupies about 40 percent of the world, more than any other human activity. In addition, irrigation of agricultural crops accounts for 70% of global water use, and agriculture is directly affected by about 11% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (mainly cattle). Expanding agricultural land can also lead to deforestation, the extinction of GHG, and the loss of biodiversity.
The Advantages of animal husbandry are:
Animal husbandry helps us to provide proper food, shelter and protection against diseases in pets. Therefore, animal husbandry helps to manage pets.
Animal husbandry helps us to develop more productive species of different breeds. Thus, animal husbandry increases the availability of various food products such as milk, eggs and meat, which are found in pets.
Animal husbandry helps improve the quality of life of farmers. Due to the high production of animal products, farmers’ incomes are rising.
The disadvantages of:
Animals eat grass with large holes, thus destroying vegetation.
Overeating in forests led to soil erosion.
It disrupts the local ecosystem. It inhibits normal trophic activity due to domestication.
A major source of methane, one of the main causes of global warming.
The spread of disease
High maintenance costs
A major source of increased livestock production in the study area:
Livestock plays an important role in the diet – through the consumption of animal products by livestock owners and their families; and indirectly for sale as animals and animal products as a source of income.
In the past food safety studies focused on calculating cereal crop production and the importance of livestock in providing food security was rarely tested. It is said that the role of livestock in food is often underestimated. However, it is not easy to quantify the real role of livestock without features without direct food production; An effective method of measuring the value of livestock is not yet established. Livestock can be considered as a production system as shown in Figure 1, which divides the system into the following: inputs; animal health; animals that are a unit of production; product results; and a market that buys products and sets a price for the manufacturer. Each of these stages is tested.
Nutrition and nutrition.
Breeding and Breeding.
Health and Disease. Economic Factor.
Economic and Social. Environmental Factor
Housing and Environment: Luxury needs.
Park Management, Land Use Patterns and People’s Perceptions: J ^ Case of Desert National Park, Rajasthan, India. Nagothu Udaya Sekhar, Ulrik A. Motzfeldt and N.Shanmugaratnam,
DESERT NATIONAL PARK – Bio-Diversity Reporthttp: //forestsclearance.nic.in ›Wildlife› Userdetail
Jhabar mal tetarwal * 1 Vinod Bhateshwar2Goatm chopra1Avinash Bochalya3,
1Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Sam Hingginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj – 211 007.
2Ph.D. Research Scholar Department of Dairy Science and Food Technology Institute of Agricultural Sciences BHU Varanasi-221005, UP India
3Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University Dantiwada, Gujarat 385506
1 *Email: J6350260110@gmail.com